When Dogs Go Weak at the Knees


The cranial cruciate ligament is one of the most important stabilisers inside the canine stifle (knee) joint and unfortunately rupture of this ligament is one of the most common reasons for hind limb lameness, pain and subsequent arthritis.

Cranial cruciate ligament rupture can affect dogs of all sizes, breeds and ages, but rarely cats. Certain dog breeds have a higher incidence, and obesity and sudden strenuous activity increase the risk. Chronic changes can also be responsible with few or no symptoms until the ligament finally ruptures without an obvious cause.

Typical signs your dog may exhibit include non-weight bearing of the affected leg, general lameness (limping), swelling or pain in the knee, difficulty with normal activity such as getting up or jumping into the car, or seeming a little stiff in the back legs.

If you notice any signs of pain or discomfort in your dog, the sooner you consult with your veterinarian the better.

Your veterinarian will initially watch your dog walk and feel the stifle joint to determine if ligament rupture is indicated. X-rays will need to be taken to evaluate the extent of damage to the stifle joint, including existing arthritis, and help to determine the best course of treatment.

Treatment or management may be surgical or non-surgical, and will depend on the dogs size, age, activity level and degree of damage. Surgical treatment is usually considered the best treatment as it is the only way to permanently control the instability and pain. The ligament itself is not repaired; instead the tibia (shin) bone may be realigned, implants inserted to change the angle of the bone, or specialised suture techniques utilised to stabilise the joint.

Careful post-surgical management at home is critical to reduce the chance of the surgical repair failing. Unfortunately, 40-60% of dogs that have had one knee affected will go on to develop a problem in the other knee.



Letting the Cat out of the Bag

cat in bagCats are, by nature, enigmatic. Cats do not show their emotions as obviously as other animals, and tend to withdraw and become quiet. Acute problems may be recognised by sudden changes in behaviour, but when the issues are chronic, signs of stress and pain can be subtle and we may easily mistake them for normal cat behaviour.

Cats need to feel in control of their environment. Anything that interrupts their feeling of control can, over time, raise your cat’s stress level. Stress has been identified as a significant trigger for most cat behaviour problems and some diseases. Knowing the common warning signs when your cat is feeling stressed is essential in identifying their emotional well-being and making the changes necessary to improve their feeling of security and contentment, or seek veterinary help when necessary.

The cat that overeats, over-grooms, is inactive or sleeps a lot, may not just be the lazy fat cat you know and love, but instead be withdrawing to protect themselves from stress or pain. The cat that wees on the carpet, scratches the furniture or fights with other cats isn’t being naughty, but instead may be displaying signs of anxiety, pain or discomfort. The cat that sleeps on your bed with the other cat but creeps slowly past is in fact threatened by the other cat, and only just managing to tolerate its presence in order to be with you.

Understanding your cat’s environmental needs and behaviour can be difficult. There are many resources online to help but it’s crucial to seek quality and qualified advice from reputable sites, such as International Cat Care. If behaviour is causing problems or health issues are suspected, seek veterinary help as soon as possible.

Pheromone therapy like Feliway can be very useful to increase your cat’s sense of wellbeing in the face of stress whilst causes are identified and eliminated.

 In-clinic special: 33% OFF Feliway Diffusers, while stocks last!

The Darkside of Backsides

Anal glands are two small semi-fluid filled sacs, located under the skin on either side of the anus, in dogs and cats. They are designed to empty their very smelly fluid onto the animal’s bowel motions. Most animals never have an issue with their anal glands, and you may not even know they exist. However, they can develop problems, ranging from irritating, to very serious.

The classic signs of anal gland problems in pets is “scooting”, where they drag their bottom along the ground. This is commonly mistaken as a sign of worms – although tapeworm infestation can occasionally cause scooting, it is far more likely to be anal gland irritation. Your pet may also chase, lick or bite at their backside or top of the tail. They may have trouble going to the toilet, or be in pain when trying. Sometimes they may have a swelling around their anus which could be very firm, or soft and inflamed, and find sitting painful.

Diet, being overweight, skin issues or allergies, and infection, as well as trauma or even poor anatomy can all be a cause of anal gland problems.

Impaction is the most common problem associated with anal glands. This occurs when the fluid builds up in the glands and thickens, and isn’t expressed with toileting, resulting in enlargement and irritation of the glands.

Anal gland infections cause irritation and inflammation and can develop into an anal gland abscess. Pus can build up within the anal gland until it eventually ruptures.

Anal gland tumors do occur, and although rare, are usually an invasive cancer growth called an adenocarcinoma, with a poor prognosis.

If you notice your pet bothered by their backside, it’s important to get them to their vet to determine the cause. Treatments can range from treating the underlying cause, providing supplements, antibiotics or pain-relief, manually expressing the anal glands, flushing the glands, and rarely, surgical removal.

Terrible Toxicities

toxinsWe’re approaching a time of year where we see a lot of animals with potentially fatal toxicities. Their natural curiosity makes them vulnerable to substances about the home that are harmful to their health. Most pet owners go to great lengths to care for their pets, but there are several hazards which are commonly overlooked, yet easily avoided.

Rat Bait

Most rat baits available to the public contain anticoagulants. These work by preventing clotting of the blood. Symptoms often do not appear until several days after eating as it takes some time for the clotting factors to be depleted. Unfortunately, rat bait is often ingested without the owner’s knowledge and an untreated animal can potentially die from blood loss.

Signs of rat bait poisoning are variable and are caused by internal bleeding. These include:
•Lethargy, depression
•Loss of appetite
•Pale gums
•Coughing or difficulty breathing
•Blood in stool or urine
•Bleeding from nose or gums

Slug/Snail Bait

Most contain a toxin called metaldehyde that affects the central nervous system causing seizures. Initial signs of poisoning occur in as little as half an hour after ingestion. Death can occur within a couple of hours.

Signs of poisoning are usually progressive:
•Anxious behaviour
•Mild twitching
•Uncoordinated walk
•Salivating or excessive drooling


Most antifreeze formulations contain ethylene glycol. The sweet smell attracts animals, but it is deadly if ingested even in small amounts. As little as half a teaspoon can kill an average-sized cat. Unless you catch it early, the damage to pets’ kidneys is irreversible. Signs can be seen from 30 minutes to 12 hours after ingestion.

Signs of antifreeze poisoning include:
•Nausea and vomiting
•Mild to severe depression
•Wobbly, uncoordinated or drunken-appearing gait (ataxia) or movement and knuckling of the feet
•Twitching muscles
•Short, rapid movements of the eyeball
•Head tremors
•Decreased or no appetite
•Ulcers in mouth
•Little or no urination

Think about your pets as you would your children when considering the dangers of using these products. There may be alternatives that pose less of a risk. Keep all products stored safely, well out of reach of your pets and any spills or leaks cleaned up immediately.

If you suspect your pet has been exposed to any of these poisons it is important to contact your vet clinic immediately. If you know the brand, inform the vet and if possible, bring the container with you. As with all emergencies, the sooner they get to the vet the better the chance of a positive outcome

Warm Wet Weather Woes

It’s hard not to mention the weather again because it so often causes a number of problems with our pets. Rabbits and Guinea Pigs are regularly seen at the clinic during warm, wet weather with a number of ailments that can be distressing or life-threatening.

Fleas, mites and lice can cause chewing and scratching, resulting in scabs and hair-loss. They are treatable, but drugs need to be used with extreme caution. Make sure any products you use are suitable for rabbits or guinea pigs and dosed to individual animals.

Teeth need to be taken care of too. A rabbit or guinea pig that can’t eat properly due to malocclusion (teeth that do not meet normally) may develop drooling, diarrhoea, loss of appetite, weight loss and lethargy. Veterinary attention is required urgently.

Fly-strike is a common and serious problem. Many infested pets are well cared for, but the signs of a problem have been missed with normal daily husbandry. Flies can strike a healthy animal that has loose stools, wet skin, or a wound, but at particular risk are aging, disabled, or overweight rabbits that cannot clean themselves. Within a 24-hour period an otherwise healthy rabbit can enter a terminal state of shock due to maggot infestation.

During warm, wet weather, carers need to be extra vigilant with cage or run hygiene, and check their pets daily for signs of a dirty bottom, moist skin, wounds or inactivity, especially if they like to sit where they toilet. If any maggots are seen, call your veterinary clinic immediately.

For more information on how to take care of your rabbit or guinea pig, come into the clinic for a copy of our brochure A Guide to Keeping Rabbits & Guinea Pigs See also our Rabbit Calici Virus brochure and why you need to vaccinate your rabbits.

Forecast – Rain with chance of an emergency

Red Cat looking rain in window

The weather – it’s not just us feeling down about it. Many cats aren’t venturing outside as much as they normally would, especially to toilet. Instead, they’re holding on or getting stressed, both of which can lead to developing urinary tract problems.
We’re seeing a large number of cats that need urgent attention, which is unusual for this time of year. Most commonly these are overweight neutered males, but any cat can be affected.
You may notice your cat frequently going (or trying to go) to the toilet. It might look like they’re straining, or constipated. Sometimes they manage to pass little drops of urine which may be tinged with blood. At other times, nothing seems to happen. Your cat may cry out, seem distressed, or become quiet and depressed, and they may resent being petted or spend a lot of time cleaning their genital area.
Your cat may have cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder. They will painful, possibly have an infection, and require veterinary attention.
If your cat is male, there is a chance he is partially or totally ‘blocked’. This is an emergency, and he must see a veterinarian immediately! It is a life-threatening condition. The kidneys are no longer able to remove toxins from the blood or maintain a balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body. Without treatment, death frequently occurs when these imbalances lead to heart failure—often in less than twenty-four to forty-eight hours.
If you suspect that your cat is having trouble peeing, contact your veterinarian immediately. Please don’t wait for them to get better on their own, or to get worse before seeking help. For more information on this problem, the symptoms, treatment, and ways to help prevent it, please download a copy of FLUTD Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease , or come into the clinic for a copy of our brochure.

Keep your pets summer safe!

how hot is your car graphic from 123rf paid

Take some simple precautions to keep your much loved pet healthy, happy and safe this summertime.

Keep your pet cool. A panting animal is trying to cool down. If they can’t, they may become heat stressed, and this can rapidly become life threatening. NEVER leave your pet in an enclosed space or car, even with the windows down. Even exercise on a warm day can cause a problem. If you suspect an animal is heat stressed cool with tap water and seek help immediately. They may pant heavily, feel hot, salivate, or have dry, dark gums. They may be lethargic, collapse or seizure. This is an emergency! Take water for your pets with you, even on walks.

 Lovely romps outside can turn nasty when certain grass seeds get stuck in paws, ears or into the skin. This can be very painful. Grass seeds can even migrate through the skin, requiring extensive surgical exploration to remove. Check your pet regularly for grass seeds and see your veterinarian if you suspect a problem.

Skin issues are common in summer, including skin infections, flea bites, burns and sunburn.

Keep up with their flea treatment – a scratching pet may develop skin problems, such as “hot spots” – areas of moist, inflamed skin.

Animal safe sunscreens are available and it is worth applying some to your pet’s ears and nose, especially if they are light coloured. Just like us sunburn can lead to skin cancer. Hot concrete, tarmac and BBQs can cause burns, especially on paws. If you can’t touch it, neither can they!

Discard any uneaten food that can quickly become spoiled or contaminated by flies. And remember – BBQ and party food is not for pets.

Don’t forget the pets outside. Flystrike is a common problem in bunnies, and is often discovered too late. Check your rabbit regularly for any soiling around their bottom and if you find maggots, see your veterinarian straight away.

Please always make sure your pets have cool shade, and fresh water available.

Happy Holidays

Pets are for lifeThe holiday season can be overwhelming for animals and a full house can be quite intimidating. There’s a lot going on, and plenty of trouble to get into. Here are a few suggestions for how you can put your pet at ease and keep them safe so that they can enjoy this time as well.

Make time during the day to simply spend time with your pet and keep to their normal routine as much as possible.

Make sure they have a safe and comfortable retreat area away from the hustle and bustle.

Noise can scare your pet. Christmas crackers and corks popping could panic your pet.

Please choose pet specific food treats. Human food can cause diarrhoea, vomiting, or worse, poison your pet or become a medical or surgical emergency. Beware your pet getting into chocolate, nuts, fatty foods and bones. No ham!

Buy your pet’s Christmas present from a reputable pet shop or veterinary clinic, and keep your pet away from children’s toys.

Keep them away from decorations and wrapping paper, electrical cords and lights.

Several festive plants are attractive and poisonous to cat, including lillies and poinsettia. Lillies are EXTREMELY TOXIC and will cause irreparable kidney damage or death with the slightest amount of ingestion. Even licking pollen off their fur can be fatal. Poinsettia may cause skin irritation, vomiting or diarrhoea if ingested.

Keep your pets cool. If you’re outside, make sure they have access to shade and plenty of water. NEVER leave your dog in the car or any enclosed space where they can overheat. Animals that get too hot can die – fast.

If you’re going away and taking your pet, make sure they travel safely and securely, have rest and toilet breaks, and the opportunity to have a drink.

If you‘re leaving them in boarding facilities, make sure their vaccinations are up-to-date. Don’t leave it until the last minute! If you find your pet is due for a vaccination whilst you’re away, call your vet now to book an appointment.

If you’re leaving them at home, make sure the person staying with them or checking on them daily has yours and your veterinarian’s contact number on hand.

If your pet has a prescription medicine or diet, check that there will be enough to cover your time away.

Last but not least, help spread the message that pets are for life, not just for Christmas. Never support the giving of animals as a surprise gift.

Have a safe and happy holiday season.

Ditch the Itch!

ApoquelThe occasional itch is a fact of life for dogs, but excessive itching isn’t. Not only is it very irritating, it is very important to take the scratching seriously. The longer they scratch, the worse their skin condition becomes, and the harder it is to control.

There are many causes for itchy skin. Sun exposure, parasites like fleas and mites, bacterial, yeast or fungal infections, contact allergies, food allergies, metabolic, hormone and immune diseases can be responsible. A correct diagnosis is essential and your vet will often recommend testing, which can mean taking samples directly from your pet’s skin, and occasionally also blood samples.

Skin issues as a result or one of more allergies – flea, food, contact or atopic dermatitis (caused by environmental allergens) create a vicious cycle of itching and scratching. The great news is a new medication has become available that is specifically designed to rapidly control itching associated with allergic skin disease in dogs.

APOQUEL is a new drug that very quickly lessens your dog’s itch and their desire to scratch, and also decreases any associated redness and swelling in the skin.

Unlike other treatments, APOQUEL targets the itch signal in the nervous system and has minimal negative impact on the immune system. APOQUEL acts fast, reducing itch within 24 hours and providing effective and sustained relief for your dog.

APOQUEL is unlike any other current anti-itch medication. It is a new class of drug that has fewer side effects than can be expected with other medications. It is well tolerated and can be used for both seasonal and life-long allergic skin diseases. APOQUEL allows your veterinarian to continue to diagnose underlying causes of the irritation while providing your dog with relief.

Talk to us today if you are concerned about your dog’s excessive itching. We can assess if APOQUEL may be suitable for your dog. For a short time, APOQUEL is available on a free 7 day trial.

Frightening Fireworks

Many people love the sights and sounds of fireworks, but for our pets and other animals, fireworks can be extremely frightening and distressing. Most vet clinics and SPCA’s around the country encounter a number of lost, injured and even abused animals following fireworks. With some preparation and awareness, however, it is possible to get through the fireworks season with minimal fear and stress.

Always make sure your pets are safe and secure. They should be microchipped, or at least have a collar with contact details in the event that they run off from fright. Make sure runs, cages and bird aviaries are secured and covered.

Cats and dogs are best to be kept inside. Make sure the windows are covered, doors shut and secured, and have the t.v. or radio on to help cover the sounds of fireworks. Your pet may have their own safe spot – it may be their crate, or perhaps a certain bedroom, whilst others may prefer an area created for them that is dark and quiet. Let them use this, and make sure it remains a positive place for them to retreat.

If your pet hides in a cupboard or under a bed, don’t try to get them out – this may distress them further. Scared animals can be unpredictable. Stay safe. Just reassure them you’re there and let them come out on their own.

Some pets seem naughty when they are in fact scared or distressed. Do not get cross with your pet. They will not understand. Fear is an emotion, not behaviour; so comforting your pet when they’re scared may help them feel less scared, it doesn’t reinforce the fear. Very importantly, remember to also pat and praise your pet when they are relaxed.

Considering getting some Adaptil (DAP – dog appeasing pheromone) or Feliway (synthetic feline pheromone) from your vet that can be used in the home as a spray or diffuser to provide comforting scent specific for dogs or cats. This should be started at least a few days prior to an event, and in the area where they are most likely to find refuge.

There are compression coats such as the ‘Thundershirt’ that can be used on cats and dogs to reduce anxiety. These can be ordered online or through your vet clinic. There’s also music available on You Tube or CD that may help your pet feel calm. Search for Relax my Cat, Relax my Dog, Through a Cats Ear, Through a Dogs Ear and Music for Cats. Use the music when everything is calm, before using it during a stressful event. There are also desensitising sound CDs available. Search for Sound Therapy for Dogs.

If your pet has previously reacted badly to fireworks, discuss with your vet whether medication is suitable to get them through the season. Once it’s over an individual training plan can be designed to desensitise your pet to make it easier next time.

Don’t forget outside pets and livestock. They should be secured safely in their enclosures and paddocks, preferably in the quietest area of the property. Stay safe! Don’t try to stop large animals if they’re panicking. Just ensure they remain safe and secure at a distance, and reassure them once they calm down.

If you’re not going to be home during a fireworks display, perhaps have someone come and stay with your pets if you know they get particularly distressed. Alternatively it may be preferable to have them stay at a boarding facility in a quiet area.

The best way to see fireworks is at an organised display. If you’re planning on having a fireworks display, please consider the animals in your area. Let your neighbours know in advance so they too can keep their pets safe. Better yet, reconsider.

Please make sure your animals are safe and secure during the up-coming fireworks season and if you see an animal in distress or harmed by fireworks, please let the authorities know immediately!